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道岔是把一条轨道分支为两条或两条以上的轨道
使机车车辆由一条线路转往另一条线路的基本设置
道岔号码使用辙叉号来表示的,叉心两边工作边的交角,称之为辙叉角,辙叉角的余切值称之为辙叉号数。
                  Turnout is put a rail branch into two or more than two track
      The locomotive is composed of a line is transferred to another line of the basic settings
Turnout number using crossing number to represent the angle, fork heart on both sides of the working edge,
      called the crossing angle, crossing angle of the cotangent value called a marsupial frog.
常用的道岔分为单开道岔,对称道岔,复式交分道岔和交叉渡线
Common switch is divided into single turnout turnout, symmetrical, Double Slip Switches and cross line
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道岔
道岔是特殊的轨道设备,不仅影响列车运行安全,而且使用寿命也比其他设备短,现场的养护维修工作量大。
Turnout is a special rail equipment, not only affects the safe operation of the train, and the service life is short than other equipment, on-site maintenance workload.
我国常用的单开道岔,其主线为直线,侧线由主线向左或向右岔出,也称左开道岔和右开道岔,其数量占各类道岔总数的90%以上。
China's most commonly used single turnout, its main line is straight line, lateral line by line to the left or to the right fork, also known as the left and right turnout turnout, which accounted for more than 90% of the total number of various types of switches.

单开道岔特点

单开道岔是常见的铁路配件之一,可动辙叉单开道岔的一种,是指辙叉个别部件可以移动,以何证列车过贫时轨线的连续,消除单开道岔固定辙叉上存在的有害空间,并可取消护轨,同时单开道岔辙叉在纵断面上的几何下平顺也可以大大减少,从而显著地降低单开道岔辙叉部位的轮轨相互作用,提高运行和平稳性,延长辙叉的使用寿命。
Single switch is one of the most common railway fittings, a movable turnout frog, refers to individual components can be moved, by what card train poor when trajectories are continuous, the elimination of single open harmful space existing absolute frog turnout, but also cancel the guard rail, and geometric single turnout frog in longitudinal section the ride can also be greatly reduced, thereby significantly reducing the interaction between single turnout frog parts of the wheel / rail, improve the operation and stability, prolong the service life of the frog.
长期的运营实践表明,可动心轨辙叉的使用寿命为同型号高锰钢整铸辙叉的6~9倍,养护维修工作量减少40%,大大减少了机车车辆通过时的冲击力,提高了单开道岔容许速度及施行舒适度。

道岔号数及其类型的选用

选用道岔号数的原则:应与通过速度、牵引类型、行车密度相配合并且符合铁道部的有关规定。
The selection of switch number principle:should and through the speed,traction type,traffic density matched related regulations and in line with the national and the Ministry of railways.

通过道岔的容许速度

道岔的容许通过速度分为直向和侧向两种
Turnout is allowed to pass through the speed straight into the lateral to and two
对道岔直向容许通过速度的规定
On the switch to allow straight through the provisions of the speed
(1)在任何情况下各种轨型道岔的直向容许通过速度:43轨的不得超过100km/h;50轨的不得超过120km/h。
(2)采用普通固定式辙岔的道岔,在任何情况下通过速度不得超过120km/h
(3)固定式辙岔为普通钢轨组合的道岔,在任何情况下通过速度不得超过100km/h。
单开道岔

单开道岔的构造和类型

单开道岔示意图
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常见问题及解答
Common problems and Solutions
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道岔的种类有哪些?

按尖轨类型,道岔可分为直线尖轨道岔和曲线尖轨道岔两种。直线尖轨道岔的技术特点是尖轨较短,两根尖轨可对称制造,跟端为活接头,扳动灵活,稳定性稍差,需配置一台转辙机,侧向容许通过速度一般为30 km / h。曲线尖轨道岔的技术特点是尖轨较长,两根尖轨不可对称制造,跟端采用接头夹板连接,稳定性好,需配置两台或多台转辙机,侧向容许通过速度一般为 35 km/h。60 kg/m 钢轨9号直线尖轨及曲线尖轨单开道岔在我国城市轨道交通工程中均有广泛应用,技术均较成熟可靠。
According to the rail type, switch can be divided into linear split switch and curve split switch two. The technical features of linear split switch is the switch rail is short, two rail symmetric manufacturing, with end is a movable joint, pulling the flexibility, stability is a bit poor, need to configure a switch machine, lateral allowable by typically 30 km / h. The technical characteristics of sharp rail turnout switch rail curve is longer, two rail can not be symmetrical with the end of manufacturing, using the joint splint connection, good stability, need to be configured to two or more switch machine, lateral allowable by typically 35 km/h. 60 kg/m rail straight switch and curve rail turnout No. 9 are widely used in urban rail transit projects in China, are relatively mature and reliable technology.
单开道岔

为了限度地利用直线尖轨的合理性,单开道岔设计时主要采用哪些方法?

1、减少尖轨跟端间隔尺寸以满足动能损失要求;
2、加大道岔导曲线半径以满足未被平衡离心加速度及未被平衡离心加速度时变率要求,同时适当留有余量;
3、加大道岔导曲线半径尚应确保辙叉跟端与导曲线钢轨的圆顺衔接;
4、减少尖轨跟端间隔尺寸在结构设计时能够实现。。
1, to reduce the rail with end interval size to meet the requirements of kinetic energy loss;
2, plus a large turnout of guide curve radius to meet the unbalanced centrifugal acceleration and the unbalanced centrifugal acceleration time variable rate requirements, at the same time, proper redundancy;
3, plus a large turnout of guide curve radius is should ensure that the frog heel and the guide rail on curves round Shun cohesion;
4, to reduce the rail with end interval size can be realized in the structure design.
单开道岔

单开道岔总图设计方案是怎样的?

道岔总图设计采用直线型尖轨、直线型辙叉、圆曲线型导曲线,根据需要在直股或侧股设置绝缘,如下所示,其主要尺寸如下:
道岔全长:LQ= 29 986 mm;
道岔前端长度:a =14 256 mm;
道岔后端长度:b =15 730 mm;
尖轨尖端前基本轨长度:q =2 410 mm;
尖轨长度:L0= 6 450 mm;
尖轨跟端工作边与基本轨距离:t + b =144 mm;
线路中心导曲线半径:R=190 m;
辙叉前端直线插入段:K=1 558 mm;
辙叉及护轨部分采用与原道岔相同的结构型式。
Turnout general layout design using linear rail, linear frog, curved guide curve, according to the need of insulation is arranged in the straight strands or side shares, such as shown in figure below, the main dimensions are as follows:
The total length of the switch: LQ= 29986 mm;
Switch front length: a =14 256 mm;
Switch back end length: B =15 730 mm;
Tongue tip before a basic rail length: Q =2 410 mm;
Rail length: L0= 6450 mm;
Rail with end of the working side and the basic rail distance: T + B =144 mm;
The center of the line guide curve radius: R=190 m;
Insert the frog front end section: K=1 558 mm;
The frog and the guard part adopts the structure type and the same original switches.
单开道岔

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